Pneumokokal (PnD) mengancam nyawa kanak-kanak

17 Mar

AMAI yang kurang prihatin terhadap masalah penyakit penyakit berjangkit di kalangan kanak-kanak. Perkara ini harus dipandang serius kerana kira-kira dua juta kanak-kanak berusia bawah lima tahun mati setiap tahun. Antara penyakit berjangkit dan kematian utama di kalangan kanak-kanak yang semakin disedari di seluruh dunia ialah pneumokokal (PnD).
Penyakit itu antara penyakit pembawa maut yang paling mudah berjangkit pada hari ini. Dianggarkan seorang bayi meninggal dunia setiap seminit di seluruh dunia akibat jangkitan bakteria pneumokokus.
Anggaran yang dibuat Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO) itu turut mendapati, setiap tahun penyakit itu menyebabkan kematian lebih sejuta kanak-kanak berusia lima tahun ke bawah di negara membangun.
Dianggarkan kira-kira 60 peratus kanak-kanak tadika dan prasekolah juga menjadi pembawa bakteria pneumokokus yang boleh disebarkan kepada kanak-kanak lain dalam pergaulan harian di tadika atau taman asuhan.
Penyakit PnD adalah punca utama penyakit serius di kalangan kanak-kanak dan orang dewasa di seluruh dunia.
Bakteria s. pneumoniae menyebabkan penyakit yang mengancam nyawa seperti pneumonia, meningitis dan bakteremia (keracunan darah) dan juga otitis media (jangkitan bahagian tengah telinga).
Setiap tahun, bakteria S. pneumoniae dianggarkan membunuh hampir satu juta kanak-kanak di bawah umur lima tahun di seluruh dunia terutama di negara membangun.
Jika dulu pakar pediatrik mendapati kes jangkitan Hib penyebab utama penyebaran pneumokokus dan kematian yang membabitkan kanak-kanak berusia bawah lima tahun, tetapi sejak 2005 kajian mendapati, PnD adalah punca utamanya.
Penyakit itu bukan saja menjangkiti kanak-kanak, malah warga emas berusia melebihi 55 tahun berikutan sistem pertahanan badan yang agak lemah.
Walaupun tiada sebarang ubat khusus untuk merawat PnD , ia masih boleh di atasi dengan penggunaan vaksin. Lebih 20 peratus kanak-kanak membawa kuman ini melalui hidung dan tekak. Justeru, suntikan vaksin amat berfaedah bagi menghalang mereka dijangkiti.
Setakat ini, vaksin adalah kaedah paling berkesan bagi mencegah kanak-kanak daripada dijangkiti kuman ini. Vaksin itu adalah imuniti kelompok yang bermaksud ia boleh membantu melindungi kumpulan kanak-kanak daripada diserang jangkitan PnD.
Perlindungan baru pneumokokal
Menurut Pakar Perunding Pediatrik, Datuk Dr. Zulkifli Ismail, vaksin adalah kaedah paling berkesan bagi mencegah kanak-kanak daripada dijangkiti kuman ini. Vaksin itu adalah imuniti kelompok yang bermaksud ia boleh membantu melindungi kumpulan kanak-kanak daripada diserang jangkitan pneumokokal .
“Ibu bapa di Malaysia kini boleh melindungi anak-anak mereka dengan vaksin pneumokokal pediatrik generasi akan datang daripada GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), untuk mencegah penyakit pneumokokal invasif (IPD) dan Otitis Media Akut (AOM) yang disebabkan oleh streptococcus pneumoniae di kalangan bayi dan kanak-kanak dari usia enam minggu hingga dua tahun.” jelas Dr. Zulkifli.
Ia adalah vaksin berkonjugat Protein D influenza Hemofilus tidak berjenis dan polisakarida pneumokokal 10 valen.
Baru-baru ini, Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO) memberi pra kelayakan kepada vaksin ini untuk penggunaan global. Pra kelayakan ini adalah yang pertama untuk vaksin menentang penyakit pneumokokal.
Apa itu pneumokokus?
Pneumokokus juga dikenali sebagai bakteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ia adalah penyebab penyakit pneumokokus (PnD), penyakit yang amat mudah berjangkit dan merebak di kalangan kanak-kanak melalui cecair yang dilepaskan ke dalam udara apabila mereka bersin atau batuk. Pneumokokus bukan sahaja boleh menyebabkan meningitis, malahan penyakit lain yang berbahaya seperti pneumonia, bakteremia (kuman di dalam darah) dan jangkitan telinga tengah.
Bagaimanakah vaksin pneumokokus bertindak?
Vaksin pneumokokus dihasilkan daripada lapisan luar protein dinding sel bakteria yang berupaya untuk merangsang badan bayi anda mengeluarkan antibodi. Keupayaan ini akan membantu badan bayi menghasilkan sel imun khas untuk melawan jangkitan pneumokokus.


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